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National Infection Prevention and Control Manual

National Infection Prevention and Control Manual

Evidence and research

Evidence Based Content

The recommendations for practice made in the NIPCM are based on living systematic literature reviews.  Any changes identified in the scientific literature may lead to a change being made to the NIPCM following stakeholder engagement.

Literature reviews are undertaken following agreed processes for evidence identification and appraisal as well as following defined governance structures before publication on the NIPCM. Details on the research methods and terms used can be found in the Development Methodology document.

Please note that changes to the methodology are currently being piloted with the IPC Working Groups to increase transparency and improve rigour of development of the NIPCM. Following approval by the ARHAI Scotland IPC Oversight and Advisory Group, the development process will be updated.  It is anticipated that review of the pilot methodology will be complete by December 2024. The draft methodology is available to view. 

Statement: Please note that SBARs published before December 2023 make reference to alcohol based hand rub (ABHR). As of date 11 January 2024 this is now referred to as hand rub in the NIPCM based on the updated recommendations in the hand products literature review (with the exception of surgical hand antisepsis which has its own body of research).

SBAR Tools

An SBAR (Situation, Background, Assessment, Recommendation) is a communication tool presented in 4 standardised sections that allow organisations to present key information and communicate it in a clear and concise way. SBARs are often used in healthcare settings to:

  • facilitate communication about patient care between healthcare workers; and/or
  • present the results of an evidence review to inform evidence-based practice in healthcare settings.


ARHAI Scotland Publications

ARHAI Scotland have published in scientific journals

Literature reviews